What’s the difference between Chapter 7 and Chapter 13?

Chapter 7 and Chapter 13 are different tools that are used to handle different financial problems. Chapter 13 is a debt consolidation plan used to repay debt in full or in part over a period of years. Chapter 7 is a fresh start or liquidation case that is usually finished after only a few months.

In Chapter 13, you can force secured creditors like mortgage lenders or car lenders to allow you to cure defaults over time, whether they agree or not. In Chapter 7, unsecured debts are discharged without payment, and you indicate your preference (intent) as to whether or not you want to “reaffirm” and keep paying your secured creditors. Alternatively, you may surrender the collateral and discharge the debt.

Read more “What’s the difference between Chapter 7 and Chapter 13?”

Tax Refunds, Lawsuit Recoveries, and Inheritances

If the state or federal government owes you money for a tax refund that you have not yet received, this is considered to be an “asset” owned by you similar to money in your bank account. Assets should be disclosed in bankruptcies. You are then allowed to “exempt” or protect those assets within certain dollar limits depending on what the asset is, and depending on how many people own it.

In some Chapter 13’s, but not all of them, you might be required under your plan to pay in part of future tax refunds to pay creditors if they would not be paid in full otherwise. You should ask the lawyer about this if you are filing Chapter 13.

In either Chapter 7 or Chapter 13, disclosing assets is the proper way and best way to protect them. Hiding or failing to disclose assets can result in the loss of protection that you would otherwise have, and creditors and Trustees can make problems for you if they allege that you failed to disclose something that should have been disclosed.

Similarly, if you have a “claim” against someone else, regardless of whether you have filed suit, and regardless of whether you have retained a lawyer, this “claim” is also an asset that should be disclosed and exempted in a bankruptcy. It doesn’t matter if the exact value of the claim is known or not. “Value” can be listed as “unknown”. Personal injury, products liability, worker’s compensation, and employment discrimination are common examples of this type of “claim”. Claims should be disclosed whenever they arise, even after a bankruptcy has been filed.

If you are due to inherit money or property from someone who has died, your share is an “asset”, even if the inheritance has not been distributed. If someone dies within 180 days (six months) after you file, that inheritance is also an “asset”, and your share should be added to the schedules and exempted for your protection.

The disclosure of assets does NOT necessarily mean that you will lose them. Assets can be protected within limits in a Chapter 7 by exemption, and you are not subject to losing assets in Chapter 13 at all (even though it might or might not impact the minimum amount of your monthly payments). A Chapter 13 is a voluntary proceeding. If the burdens of continuing the case outweigh the benefits, you can just terminate the proceeding. Thus, people very seldom lose anything that they don’t want to lose when they bankruptcy, assuming they consult an attorney about the rules in advance to make informed decisions.

Each case is different. In the vast majority of cases, debtors safely own assets, disclose assets, and protect them. If it turns out that you are subject to losing something that you don’t want to lose, the best approach is to discuss it specifically with the lawyer ahead of time. The best answer often involves balancing benefits and burdens in that particular case. This will eliminate unnecessary worry about losing assets.

Please call us at 770-683-3303 today to discuss your specific situation.

Pick Your Lawyer Carefully, Then Trust That Person

We frequently receive calls from people who filed their bankruptcy case with another lawyer, and now want to change lawyers. Sometimes it’s because the first lawyer won’t return calls. Sometimes the client just doesn’t understand requirements and procedures. Sometimes they have received objections, and believe their case has been thrown out, or will be thrown out, no matter what they do. Sometimes clients suspect that they are not receiving the best deal possible.

To be successful, bankruptcies require that the paperwork be done accurately. Each case is different, and one size definitely does not fit all. The lawyer needs documentation (paystubs, tax returns, bills, letters, etc.) to fill out the forms at the beginning and on an ongoing basis so that the Trustee or creditors do not object. Debtors often believe that approximations are good enough, and that they are free to pick and choose which debts to file. Approximations work occasionally, but not always. You are always supposed to list all of your debts, even if you are keeping the property or paying for it “outside” the bankruptcy. The general rule is that everything is “disclosed”, even though there may be considerable freedom in deciding how debts or assets are treated in the plan or statement of intentions.

Our experience is that taking time to be accurate on the front end greatly reduces anxiety, and reduces complications in both simple and hard cases. Naturally, hard cases, like business cases or repeat filings, take longer to get right than simple cases. Sometimes clients believe that their case is hard, when really it’s easy, and sometimes they think it’s easy, when it’s complex for reasons they did not anticipate. Either way, it works best when everyone understands the challenges and benefits as early as possible. The best way to make that happen is to be prepared with paperwork. Keep appointments. Listen carefully to questions, and trust that the lawyer really is on your side even if he warns you about constraints. Trust that the lawyer wants you to succeed, and get what you want as badly as you do.

If you are wondering about filing a bankruptcy, call first and ask general questions. Listen for whether you are being treated with respect, and expect to get some meaningful answers to your questions. However, you shouldn’t expect highly specific answers if you haven’t met the lawyer in person and provided all the information needed to write detailed plans and schedules.

After you file, trust the lawyer that you have chosen. The procedures and requirements are too numerous to understand everything at once, especially things that may or may not happen in the future. Sometimes you have to be patient and let your questions come into focus.

After you have chosen to file with a particular lawyer, it’s not proper for a different lawyer to give second opinions and second guess decisions that your lawyer has made. When people who are already represented ask me questions, I may feel like offering my own opinion and solutions, but I almost always refrain. A person who offers a “second opinion” often hasn’t understood everything. It’s disrespectful to both the lawyer and the client to make superficial suggestions without an adequate grasp of the facts.

Please call us at 770-683-3303 to discuss your particular situation. With our help, starting the process will be less stressful, smoother, and more successful than what you might think.

Saving a Title Pawn in Chapter 13

Under the Georgia Code, title pawns are not the same as auto loans. Auto loans are “purchase- money” loans used to finance the purchase of a vehicle, whereas title pawns are similar to the sale of a vehicle to a pawnbroker at the time the “loan” is made… subject to a specific “right of redemption”. As the result, the treatment of a title pawn in bankruptcy is different from the treatment of an auto loan, and poses problems. Read more “Saving a Title Pawn in Chapter 13”

Hardship Discharge of Student Loans

The amount of student loan debt now exceeds outstanding credit card debt in the United States. This is not surprising because acquiring a higher education is perceived to be necessary to landing a job in a competitive environment. Further, it is easier to borrow for a student loan than it is to borrow for other purposes, since unlike other types of loans, neither a job nor a co-signer may be needed. Moreover, the government often guarantees repayment of student loans, and it is not easy to obtain a hardship discharge of student loans in bankruptcy. Read more “Hardship Discharge of Student Loans”

Will I Lose My House If I File Bankruptcy?

In Chapter 7, the Court is not interested in taking and selling property except to the extent that it has equity in it… that is, to the extent that it is worth more than what you owe on it. Thus, the value of your property is very important. You are allowed to protect (“exempt”) equity in your residence up to $21,500.00 per spouse. You may also be able to exempt equity in real estate that you do not live in, but the amount of your allowable exemptions is less in that case. Read more “Will I Lose My House If I File Bankruptcy?”

Starting the Process of Filing for Bankruptcy

General information about bankruptcy is available online, and some people prefer to do preliminary research before making their first contact with a lawyer. However, in bankruptcy, what happens depends on the circumstances of the individual debtor. Also, to some extent, issues are handled differently depending on which judge or which trustee is assigned. Thus, it is not the case that “one size fits all”. Local knowledge and expertise is important to get the best result in your case. Read more “Starting the Process of Filing for Bankruptcy”

Does Filing Bankruptcy Have Any Effect On Obligations Arising in Divorce?

It’s common knowledge that you can’t “bankrupt on child support or alimony”. Obligations “in the nature of support” (even if they are labeled something else in the divorce decree) have never been dischargeable in bankruptcy. This means that you can’t get rid of them without payment. Read more “Does Filing Bankruptcy Have Any Effect On Obligations Arising in Divorce?”

Do I have to include my spouse?

It’s not unusual for your husband or wife to be opposed to filing bankruptcy with you for one reason or another. The good news is that you are not legally REQUIRED to file a joint case with your spouse. Many cases are filed singly, regardless of marital status. However, depending on your circumstances, you might need to file together, because otherwise, you would not qualify for the benefits that you are seeking.

A bankruptcy discharge will only the cover the person who files the case (the “debtor”). If a debt is owed jointly, the non-filing spouse will not be covered by the debtor’s discharge. Where a debtor and the non-filing spouse owe a joint debt and a Chapter 7 is filed, the debtor would be discharged of the debt. However, the non-filing spouse would continue to owe it, and would continue to be subject to collection activity.

In a Chapter 13, the debtor may protect the non-filing spouse on a jointly-owed consumer debt. The debtor does this by providing in the plan that the debtor will pay the debt in full through the plan. While this protects the non-filing co-obligor, it might make the plan more expensive because plan payments have to be high enough to pay the debt. Otherwise, if the debtor will not pay a joint debt, the court will “grant relief from the automatic stay” to allow the creditor to be paid by the non-filing co-obligor.

Suppose you owe a car note jointly with the non-filing spouse, and you intend to pay for that car through your Chapter 13 (whether the spouse files with you or not). You can do this even if you file by yourself. However, in order to fully protect the other party, you would have to pay the full contract interest on the car. This can make a big difference if the contract interest rate is high. By contrast, if you choose to file a joint case, you may reduce the contract interest rate and receive a discharge without paying that high interest.

Suppose your spouse doesn’t owe any debt, or can handle his or her debt without filing with you. In that case, he or she does not have to file. However, you still have to include the spouse’s income and expenses in your budget. (A non-filing spouse’s name and social security number are not included in the bankruptcy petition, even though the Trustee can and does require “proof of income” from the non-filing spouse. This information is not published publicly). Thus, the bankruptcy should not affect the non-filing spouse’s credit so long as debts are not owed jointly.

The budget includes household income and expenses even in a single filing. If you think about it, your ability to pay debt is very much affected by your spouse’s income, because he or she pays some of the bills. In a Chapter 13, your budget must show that you have the ability to pay what your plan requires you to pay. Otherwise, the plan is “infeasible”. Similarly, in a Chapter 7, your budget must show that you can afford to pay for the debts that you want to “reaffirm”, such as your car or your house. Without your spouse’s income, you probably couldn’t afford to do that.

Please call us at 770-683-3303 to discuss your particular situation with our lawyers.