Yes. In Chapter 7, there is a short list of “non-dischargeable” debts that will pass through bankruptcy without being discharged. Some common types are child support, student loans, and recent taxes. Less common types include drunk driving debts and debts incurred by fraud.
Chapter 13 is often used to repay “non-dischargeable” debts over time under the protection of the court. Thus, you can repay past due taxes, past due child support, and student loans through Chapter 13, even though you can’t discharge those debts without payment.